Hydration for Beauty & Watery Selfcare Practices for Radiant Health from the Inside Out
Selfcare is the name of the game. The better we take care of ourselves, the more resilient we are. And since your physical self is 99.9% water molecules, water has a huge role to play in our selfcare practices!
So today we’re going to explore the roles water plays in our beauty and hygiene, both internally and externally. And please share your favorite self care techniques in the comments below!
We’ll start EXTERNALLY with the foundation of your beauty routine - the water you shower and bathe in. You’ll see how hardness, softness, and chemical additives affect your hair and skin, and I’ll share some effective solutions to make your shower and bathtime extra nourishing.
Then we’ll get into the fun stuff - juicy nourishing beautification and selfcare practices like hydrotherapy, red light therapy, infoceutical beauty remedies, double helix skincare, and lymphatic drainage.
And we’ll finish up INTERNALLY with general hydration tips for glowing skin and hair. You can use the time stamps below to navigate.
Leverage water to look and feel GORGEOUS & LUSCIOUS from the inside out!
0:00 - Intro - Water & Beauty 0:57 - Bathing & Showering in Hard Water 1:13 - Effects on Hair 3:04 - Effects on Skin 3:58 - The Solution For Hard Water 🌀 4:19 - Structuring Hard Water to Soften It 4:57 - Bathing & Showering in Tap Water 8:44 - Your Own Spa 9:53 - Structuring Tap Water to Neutralize Toxins 11:32 - Selfcare Practices 11:46 - Hydrotherapy Facials 14:04 - Hydrating Red Light Facials 15:31 - Lymphatic Fluid Facials 16:34 - Infoceutical Beauty Elixirs 17:14 - Hydrating Skincare Products 18:27 - Hydration 19:21 - Skin Hydration 21:23 - Hair Hydration 23:18 - Final Thoughts / The Fountain of Youth
BATHING & SHOWERING
Let’s start with our daily drench... Nothing is more relaxing and refreshing than a deliciously steamy bath or shower after a long day. But is your shower really cleansing the way you think it is?
Hard Water & Hair
If your hair has been looking dull or dry lately, the problem may not be with your strands themselves, but with the water you’re showering in. Though often overlooked, “hard water,” meaning water with a lot of dissolved minerals like calcium, magnesium, metallic ions, etc, can have a significant impact on the look and feel of your skin and hair, affecting everything from moisture content to overall manageability. It can also prevent soap from lathering well. If your water is "hard" then you end up using more soap, detergent or shampoo just to raise a lather, which means you may be going through more products than necessary.
The toughtest issue facing those with hard water is the buildup it can leave behind on both your hair and scalp. This buildup can not only weigh your hair down, leaving it flat and lifeless, it can also make it more brittle, leading to damage (and depending on your hairtype, even frizz). It erodes the hair elasticity and leaves the hair very rough, as it lifts the cuticle. Hard water is also notorious for interfering with hair color, dulling, fading, and sometimes even discoloring it.
One study published in the International Journal of Trichology found that people who used hard water to wash their hair had decreased hair strength resulting in more breakage and untameable frizzy flyaways. And another study from the International Journal of Dermatology found that hair treated in hard water had more mineral deposits and decreased thickness.
According to trichologist Ricardo Vila Nova, "Hard water can irritate even the oiliest of scalps. Even if you think you have very fine hair that has to be washed daily to avoid it looking greasy, the hard water can dry your scalp out to be point where it becomes dehydrated and oily." Likewise, if your scalp is already on the slightly dry side, hard water can push it over the edge into flaky territory.
Stay tuned or navigate to the solutions section to discover my top recommendation for solving the hard water problem.
Hard Water & Skin
And not only is your hair affected by water hardness, but of course your skin is, too.
A study published in the Journal of Investigative Dermatology found that using hard water on the skin increased sulfate deposits, which can cause further irritation and dryness. It can also cause or exacerbate sensitive skin. You may find you need to use a lot more creams and oils just to keep your skin as silky as you like it. As dermatologist Dr. Sam Bunting described, "Minerals being left to dry on the skin may clog pores and cause dryness, triggering breakouts, flaking and itching.” Plus, "When water contains high amounts of calcium, it doesn’t properly dissolve soap, meaning that there can be some residue left on the skin. This can also contribute to sensitive, irritable and blemish-prone skin." This all makes sense when you take into consideration that incidences of eczema and psoriasis are both far more common in hard water areas.
Hard Water Solutions
To check your water’s pH and see if it’s soft or hard, you can send a sample to be tested, or buy a water hardness test, called a TDS meter You can find it in the “water tests” collection at waterislife.shop.
Actually the solution is really simple! The best way to soften a hard water is to simply structure it. Although this doesn’t physically remove the minerals from the water, it changes their shape and renders them inert, creating a softer texture to your water. One of the most common things people notice after installing a shower water structurer or whole-home water structurer, is softer, more supple skin and more luxurious hair. Natural Action has actually just released a brand new upgraded version of their shower structurer that beautifully softens and enlivens the water you bathe in, reducing not only hard minerals but also reducing any toxic compounds like fluoride and chlorine by rendering them inert within the exclusion-zone structure of clustered water molecules which, just like the name suggests, exclude toxins from their crystalline matrix and erase the frequency or memory of those toxins.
Another option, which you might consider in addition to the structurer depending on the quality of your tap water, is a shower filter. By far, my favorite is the ultimate dual KDF. It’s the most robust on the market, even removing the toughest contaminants like fluoride and chloramine.
Many choose to just use the structurer, but you might like to have a two prong approach to make sure your water, and thereby your hair and skin, get the extra TLC they deserve.
Now let’s address tap water.
However well intentioned our self-care routine, if we’re pampering ourselves in poisonous water, then our self-care is toxic.
After all, our skin is one of our largest organs, and plays an integral role in keeping us healthy.
A study published in the American Journal of Public Health showed that
the skin absorbs about 64% of total contaminants in tap water
Other studies found that your face is several times more permeable than broader areas of your body. But get this...
your underarms and genitals absorb 100% of contaminants in water!
Clearly, what we bathe in ends up inside our bodies. Get this: In 1997, the EPA concluded that a person can absorb more contaminants from bathing and showering than from drinking polluted water. In one study, the highest levels of THMs were found in the blood samples from people who took 10 min showers, whereas the lowest levels were found in the blood samples from people who drank a liter of water in 10 min. Let that sink in.
And, believe it or not, study by British researchers showed that toxins like
fluorides can be stored in the skin and released over a period of time!
My friend, this matters. The symptoms of too much fluoride exposure are pretty well known. They include: learning disorders (as Harvard researchers recently uncovered), heart issues, depression, nausea, joint issues, headaches, thyroid issues, hormonal imbalances, weight gain, and much, more.
studies indicate you may be absorbing MORE of these toxins by bathing than you would even by drinking them through the digestive tract.
So if you’ve sorted your drinking water setup but have yet to address bathtime, it’s past time to uplevel your showergame.
While we all love a good long, hot steamy shower, or a luxurious soak in the tub, the reality of the situation is that we’re exposing ourselves to high levels of toxic industrial fluoride, chlorine and other chemicals from our tap water as we’re doing it, and the more time we leave the shower head running the more time these chemicals have to interact with each other, creating new toxico-dynamic reactions (many of which haven’t been studied). Because these chemicals aren’t just affecting us in isolation. When they swim around in the water together, they meet and mate and co-create new byproducts, called DBPs - disinfection byproducts and CBPs- Chlorination byproducts, basically the bastard offspring of the noxious chemical orgy happening in your tap.
So if you’re taking a hot steamy shower in tap water, you’re breathing in trace amounts of chloroform.
Science News.org reported that researchers found increases in chloroform in study participants’ lungs of about 2.7 parts per billion after a 10-minute shower. Considering the trifecta of warm water opening pores, skin absorption, and lung inhalation, a
10-minute shower infuses the body with MORE of these toxins than drinking EIGHT glasses of the same water.
And it’s especially important for pregnant women to consider, as there is some evidence that CBPs may affect fetal growth. A study conducted by a team in Russia determined that women who drank or took showers in water laced with chlorine and chloramine contamination experienced higher rates of various complications with the pregnancy, including spontaneous abortions, stillbirth, low birth weight, premature delivery, and a spectrum of birth defects ranging from nerve damage to weak hearts.
For children, a hot bath or shower with unfiltered, unstructured municipal water can pose a risk to their developing respiratory system. In Belgium, a study concluded that children who frequently breathe chlorine vapors, such as those in swimming pools and hot showers and baths had an increased risk of developing juvenile asthma.
YOUR OWN SPA
Believe me, I know all this data can sound a little overwhelming and alarming, and we have reached the end of that zone of this video. The old adage holds true: there’s something in the water! But I’m not telling you this to stress you out. Just the opposite!
I want your bath and shower time to be the healing sanctuary that it should be. It should be a respite from all the concerns of the world, a place where you can come and receive a cleansing baptism from living structured water that resets and refreshes you, physically, mentally and emotionally. I want your selfcare time to feel just like going to the spa!
And, in fact, the word spa is an abbreviation for the the latin, “salus per aqua” which means, “health through water.”
Water is innately healing, when it is free of abominations...
So let’s bring salus per aqua, health through water, back to your bath and shower.
Selfcare goes beyond just a clay mask and a jade egg. It has to include the fundamental foundation of not accidentally poisoning ourselves. After all, true beauty can’t come from any 12 step skincare routine if it doesn’t first come primarily from inner radiant health, and our health is a direct measure of our hydration.
Through structuring, the water is made healthy by molecularly neutralizing toxins. Technically the chemical is still there although the amount may be reduced, but it can’t interact with your biology in the same way, as the structuring process changes the oxidation states of any chemicals present. Because we are vibrational beings far moreso than we are biochemical beings, if the water no longer holds the vibrational frequency of the toxin, and the toxin’s oxidation state has changed, it won’t have the same consequences for our health. Health is a vibrational state. After all, you could physically filter out a chemical, but as we can see from the study of homeopathic medicine, the water would still hold the memory of that toxin unless its structural matrix has been renewed. Structuring the water resets it vibration, its memory, and its physiological effects.
As Gary Greenfield has said,
“Polluted waters can be brought back to their natural pristine state without physical filtration using only vortex action and information transfer via natural EMF emitted by elements of the earth. Up until now these principles have not been acknowledged by modern science but with time I’m confident that will change.”
However, if you prefer to add the extra safeguard of physical and chemical filtration too, check out the ultimate Dual KDF in the shower collection at waterislife.shop. Most shower filters cannot remove THMs and chloramines, that’s why this one really stands out to me. Then you can use the structurer in addition, to remove the frequency and memory of the toxins, even after the filter has removed their physical presence.
Now let’s get into fun part... There are so many other ways we can use water for selfcare and beautification, after the foundational bathing, showering and washing! Once that’s done, we can move onto some nourishing practices.
Let’s start with hydrotherapy. Hydrotherapy uses temperature variations of water to direct healing to the body. You’re already familiar with many forms of hydrotherapy: Baths, saunas, hot towels, ice baths, etc. are all ubiquitous. Immersion hydrotherapy is common in burn units. Other forms of hydrotherapy that are common, but may not be well recognized include wet wraps, warming socks, Kneipping therapy, colonics and douches, and sitz baths. There are also rare and ancient forms of hydrotherapy that require special instruments, but many of them have fallen out of practice in the past hundred years or so since allopathy has replaced formerly common water healing methods like balneology, homeopathy and hydrotherapy. In fact, hydrotherapy may actually be the oldest form of healing known to mankind, since our primordial ancestors stumbled upon the first recognized the refreshing effects of jumping in a cold river or hot spring. It has been used throughout the millenia for everything from wound healing to mental health to to weightloss to pain and inflammation to nervous system disorders to the common cold, and everything in between. The trick with hydrotherapy is knowing how to administer water in a specific way for your particular goal. If your goal is radiant skin, it has several solutions for you.
Recent research has shown that hydrotherapy helps maintain skin integrity and skin hydration while reducing water loss in the skin. And a hydrotherapy clinic in France recently conducted an 8-year, 6,000 participant observational study using hydrotherapy for eczema. After just 18 days, hydrotherapy reduced eczema by 42%. But you don’t have to have eczema to benefit! It can also reduce redness, even skintone, treat under-eye bags, soothe sunburns, and reduce puffiness.
At-Home Hydrotherapy Facial Tutorial
Contraindications: do not do this particular facial protocol if you suffer from rosacea. In that case, submerge your face in room temperature structured water.
What you will need:
2 large bowls filled with structured living water
Step 1 ~ Steam
Treating your skin to a steam facial is probably the best thing you can do for your pores. As board-certified dermatologist Dr. Lucy Chen explains, steaming "hydrates the skin by increasing oil production."
Bring water to a simmer, then remove it from the heat. Do not fully boil water, as this will destructure it. Either transfer the water to a heat-resistant bowl, or use oven mitts to handle the pot.
You may choose to add a sprig of nourishing herbs to the water, such as lavender, basil or parsley. If your skin is dry or sensitive, try a soothing herb like chamomile. Licorice root and mint are also great detoxifiers that work on all skin types.
Test the temperature of the steam on the inside of your wrist. When at a comfortably warm temperature, lean over the bowl, keeping your face about a foot from the water, and drape a towel over your head like a tent. Breathe deeply, and let the steam open and cleanse your pores for 5-10 minutes. This can be a lovely, calming meditation practice.
Pat your skin dry with a clean towel.
Step 2 ~ Cold
Now that your pores are open and clean, we will tighten them using cold water therapy. According to dermatologist Michele Green, ice-water facials can remove toxins and reduce inflammation through constriction, which can boost circulation and bring forth a radiant complexion. It’s also immediately beneficial for puffiness, eyebags, and lymphatic drainage.
This is not only fantastic for your skin, but also for your overall mental health. The vagus nerve in your face connects to nerves in the rest of your body. Cooling your face translates to the rest of your body as well, tonifying your nervous system.
Take your second bowl full of structured living water and put it in your freezer.
When the water is somewhat frozen on top, take it out, add water on top of the ice, and stir it up to chill the water. The ideal temperature is around 40-45* F (as you want your skin temp close to 50-55*).
Hold your breath and submerge your face into the pan for as long as your breath or your cold tolerance last. You can start slow with just a few seconds at a time, and build up to longer periods of time. Or use a snorkel to stay submerged and enjoy the invigoration even longer.
Once you’ve finished with your beautifying hydrotherapy facial, let the water return to room temperature and use it to water your house or garden plants.
RED LIGHT THERAPY FACIALS
The next beauty trick doesn’t involve external water at all - instead, it directly targets your bodywater, your intracellular fluid, making it more structured and crystalline. After all, supple skin starts with collagen, and collagen is mostly highly structured water, with proteins. The more structured your collagen-water is, the younger and healthier the collagen stays. I’m talking about infrared light therapy!
According to Dr. Gerald Pollack’s research, structured water forms when you expose water to infrared light. When water molecules absorb infrared light, they begin to vibrate, and because water molecules have such strong bonds to one another, that vibrational energy transfers from one molecule to another, much like a ripple across a pond.
As the water molecules move closer together to stabilize themselves, they become denser and more viscous, and store energy in the form of a negative charge. It’s like a charged battery carrying valuable vibrational energy through your body.
This helps with tissue healing and repair and prevents fine lines and wrinkles. When this water is formed it creates a "structure" of water that excludes impurities like Reactive Oxygen Species and free radicals that can worsen inflammation and the signs of aging on your face. So, red light therapy facials are a super hydrating selfcare practice to add to your beauty routine.
The next hydrating beauty hack is one you’ve probably already heard of. It’s become pretty trendy in the past few years because it’s just so effective!
But most people don’t realize it works by addressing one of the biggest waterways in our body - the lymphatic fluid! You actually have 3x more lymphatic fluid than blood in your body.
And often times lymph can stagnate in the face, causing us to appear bloated and puffy. Over time, if the lymph doesn’t circulate as it should, it can cause a buildup of toxins under the skin, leading to inflammation, breakouts, etc.
So I recommend using gua sha and facial cupping for lymphatic flow! This is an easy and super enjoyable practice to add to your daily routine. And if you want the full-body benefits of lymphatic drainage, you can use a drybrush to stimulate the flow before your shower.
And you’ll find the tools for them in the “lymphatic fluid” collection on water is life . shop
At-Home Hydrating Lymphatic Flow Facial Tutorial
Hydration is not just a matter of how much water can penetrate into the cells, but also how well our cells can detoxify used water out of the cells, and how efficiently the body can wash away that detoxified extracellular fluid. To that end, the following methods help to hydrate and detoxify your facial fluids, creating a leaner and more glowing appearance.
With both techniques, remember to relax, take deep breaths, and move slowly with intention. Be gentle with your skin. The lymphatic channels are just beneath the skin surface, so you need far less pressure than you may think in order to get it flowing. A general rule of thumb is to use pressure about equal to the weight of a dime - it’s very light! Avoid problem areas, breakouts, open wounds, raised scars, or irritations. And, of course, drink plenty of structured water before, during, and after lymphatic drainage facials.
You will need: A Gua Sha stone A light hydrating skin serum
Step 1 ~ Apply a light layer of serum to clean skin, neck and shoulders
Step 2 ~ Starting at the back of the neck, gently glide the curved side of the gua sha stone downward. Angle the stone at about 45*. This moves the lymphatic fluid down towards the nodes at the collarbones.
Step 3 ~ Using the curved side again, massage slow strokes from the chin to ear. The lymphatic channels move up and away from the center of the face, over and behind the ears, and down the neck. So this is the general direction of gua sha massage.
Step 4 ~ Glide the flat side of the stone out across the cheek, still holding it at the 45* angle to maximize surface area. Then, turn it back to the curved end to move over the cheekbones, creating more definition in this area of the face.
Step 5 ~ Turn to the narrowest end of the stone, and with the lightest possible pressure (about the weight of a dime), very gently glide the stone underneath the eyes, toward the temples.
Step 6 ~ Stroke the flat end of the stone from brow up to hairline.
Step 7 ~ Hydrate… you’ve just moved a lot of fluid, so be sure to drink a glass of structured water and enjoy your new glow!
You Will Need: A facial cupping kit A light hydrating skin serum
Step 1 ~ Apply a light layer of serum to clean skin, neck and shoulders
Step 2 ~ Apply the small cup to your cin and around your mouth. Leave it in place for a few seconds to draw circulation to the surface, then glide the cup upwards and outwards. Repeat in both directions.
Step 3 ~ Use this same motion moving up the face, from chin to forehead, with long outward/upward strokes. Swap the small cup for a larger cup when you reach the broader skin surface areas, like the cheeks and forehead.
Step 4 ~ Continue with the rest of your skincare routine. Facial cupping is said to increase product absorption, so now’s the time to apply your moisturizers and other products..
INFOCEUTICAL BEAUTY ELIXIRS
Another technique I really love is creating infoceautical beauty remedies.
This practice turns your water into a resonating chamber of specific vibration. In other words, it will carry the structure, resonance, and information contained in whatever vibrational field you expose it to.
Every morning, I love to drink a hydrating beauty elixir infused with the vibrational resonance of beautifying supplements like collagen peptides, immortal pearl oyster extract, schizandra, DHA, rose, vitamin C, and GHK-Copper peptides. It’s a kind of beauty biohacking stack of skincare.
HYDRATING SKINCARE PRODUCTS
And finally, two of my favorite water-based skincare products, the double helix water skincare line and protium water mist.
The double helix skincare line was formulated with a unique, ultra-pure type of water containing concentrated stable water clusters formed at a microscopic level.
It is a relatively new discovery in the field of water and health that prevents inflammation.
It has been studied for over 25 years and is the subject matter of 36 published research articles. And it actually helps increase the cellular voltage of your skincells!
And the protium facial mist is enriched with a special isotope of hydrogen called “protium” which Nobel laureate Dr. Albert Szent-Gyorgi referred to as the “fuel of life”... It’s invigorating, and helps your skincells to produce more ATP in the mitochondria, which means overall more energy and lifespan in your cellls, keeping you looking and feeling fresh.
There are SO many more ways to work with water for beauty and selfcare practices, ranging from the practical to the ritualistic, and I couldn’t possibly list them all here. So drop me a comment if you’d like me to create a full webinar or ecourse specifically on this topic!
Now I’ve saved the best for last - the effect of internal hydration on hair, skin, and overall radiance. Because feeling and looking good is really an inside job, first and foremost. Our selfcare isn’t limited to what we do, it’s also what we drink!
As we age, thanks to the dehydrating modern lifestyle, we all experience cellular water loss. In fact Dr. Ishahari Yumi and others have said that aging is really just a process of drying out. And because your skin is 63% water, age-related dehydration becomes visible as lines, wrinkles, less elasticity, dullness, etc. The simplest example is the difference between a prune and a plum. Between an elder and a baby. The baby and the plum are both plump, hydrated, round and vital. And as that hydration fades, deep lines and creases form in both the prune and the face of an older person. They’re both the same fruit! The difference is in their water content.
It’s common sense that hydration brightens your skin, and studies have born this out again and again as well. One study showed that hydration specifically increases stratum corneum and "deep" skin hydration reduces clinical signs of dryness and roughness. The extensibility and elasticity of the skin increased. And associations were shown between water intake and transepidermal water loss, sebum content, and skin surface pH.
According to Dr. Howard Murad, the science of intracellular water has revealed that the ultimate key to youth building is the ability of each cell membrane to hold structured water. So it’s important to not only drink bioavailable structured water, but also to hydrate with nutrients that contain cell-fortifying ingredients (multivitamin, lecithin, fatty acid supplements, and glucosamine) to keep your cell membranes strong enough to retain water.
As Dr. Murad has said, “as your intracellular water increases, by definition, you’re healthier, younger, less stressed, and more energetic.”
A 2007 study in the International Journal of Cosmetic Science took an in-depth look at the effects of long-term water intake on skin health. The study found that drinking 2 1/4 liters of water every day for four weeks altered skin density and thickness. A second study from the University of Missouri-Columbia showed that drinking about two cups increased blood flow to the skin.
As dermatologist Dr. Steven Deliduka said “I’ve found that water can have a significant impact in skin health. Without adequate water intake, skin appears duller, and wrinkles and pores more prominent. Proper hydration levels help the skin to become plump and improves its elasticity meaning it’s less likely to crack and have irritations and blemishes.”
Remember, your body’s ability to absorb the water you drink is proportional to its structure and mineral content! So invest in a high quality water structurer and electrolyte, like the revitalizers from Natural Action, and Minbiotics.
You can use the code waterislife-10 to get 10% off those, and find them at www.waterislife.shop.
And your hair tells a similar story.
Water makes up one-fourth of the hair strand, and hair follicles require adequate amounts of water in order to grow new hair.
In fact, though short-term dehydration won’t harm your hair, chronic dehydration can cause hair loss and bald spots. Your body considers the integumentary system, your hair skin and nails, to be non-essential. When you don’t drink enough water, your body reroutes any much-needed water to your more vital organs. Since your hair follicles lack water, they will stop producing new hair. If you’re chronically dehydrated, your follicles won’t grow enough hair to replace the strands that are shed naturally, resulting in thinning.
Drinking good water also helps prevent split ends and brittle hair, and is also crucial for regulating the circulatory system, which provides important nutrients to your follicles, which of course helps hair growth. Water also stimulates nerve endings in the hair roots, which increases the natural vitality of your hair.
Copper can affect the pigmentation of your hair. Its deficiency can cause hair abnormalities. Calcium keeps your hair healthy and shiny. A deficiency in iron is known to cause hair loss and telogen effluvium (temporary hair loss) (3).
Zinc is another trace element that affects hair growth. Studies show that zinc deficiency causes hair loss and its supplementation can stimulate hair growth (3). It also affects cell proliferation and the size of sebaceous glands, which are important for hair growth.
One study shows that the quality of the water you drink affects the hair quality, as well (5). It shows that drinking water is the primary source for the trace elements mentioned above that affect your hair.
Keeping your scalp hydrated can also relieve the itching that comes with dandruff, and, potentially, relieve dandruff itself. If your dandruff is caused by a dry scalp, getting hydrated will help.
THE FOUNTAIN OF YOUTH
So, ranging throughout the entire integumentary system, hydration is a foundation of any good beauty routine. Not just drinking more water, but living structured bioavailable high-energy water. To put it simply, it is the size of the molecular groupings that differs. The smaller the groupings, the more bioavailable the water is — the more easily it is able to pass through cell walls, to transport nutrients and remove waste and work all its biological magic.
Newborn babies have 100% structured bodywater. But by age 50, most people have less than 50% structured water. As Dr. Zach Bush has said, “If we could stay perfectly hydrated in the intracellular environment, our aging would slow down, if not reverse”
Hydration truly is the fountain of youth.
To learn more about how to get truly deeply intracellularly hydrated, check out my ecourses over at waterislife.teachable.com. They will teach you how to bring your drinking water back to life, and how to make sure your body is absorbing every drop.
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And of course, be well and stay hydrated!
Brown et al. The role of skin absorption as a route of exposure for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in drinking water. Am J Public Health. 1984 May; 74(5): 479–484.
Kasting and Kretsos.Skin Pharmacol Physiol 2005;18:55-74
Robinson et al. The Importance of Exposure Estimation in the Assessment of Skin Sensitization risk. Contact Dermatitis 2000; 42:251-259.
A study by British researchers at the Health and Safety Laboratory in Sheffield published in the February 19, 2000 issue of Human Experimental Toxicolog
Robert E. Gosselin et al, Clinical Toxicology of Commercial Products 5th ed., 1984.